THE REST OF THE STORY: GENETIC ENGINEERING EXPERTS DISCLOSE WHAT THE POPULAR MEDIA AND INDUSTRY SPOKESPERSONS WON’T
An interview of author Brian Tokar
I had the chance to talk with one of
the Institute’s board members, Brian Tokar, who has
just finished his third book, Redesigning Life?, which was published in late
2001. Brian is a long time environmental and social activist,
has degrees in biology and biophysics from MIT and Harvard, and has written two
prior books, The Green Alternative and Earth for
Q: Brian, what spurred you to write this book and what is it all about?
A: I’ve been working for a number of years on the problems of biotechnology and genetic engineering (GE) and it’s been clear to me that there are many scientific, social, economic and political issues connected with these technologies, issues that many people were having a hard time sorting out. There was no comprehensive overview of the full range of implications of biotechnology. In the course of my work, I have met many activists and scholars who have been studying these issues for years. Rather than attempting a thorough overview myself, I thought it would be more useful to find some of the most articulate people on each specific topic and ask them to write about their areas of greatest expertise.
Redesigning Life is divided into 4 sections: the environmental and health issues, mostly related to food; medical genetics and human health; the social implications of biotechnology; and the worldwide opposition to genetic engineering. Within each section, there is a considerable range of coverage. Overall, there are 32 chapters, written by 26 different authors, including myself.
In the first section, for example, we examine industry claims regarding genetically engineered foods, particularly the false claim that these technologies are the solution to hunger in the world. We examine the wide range of health and environmental consequences of genetically engineered products currently on the market. Further, Orin Langelle of the Native Forest Network looks at the environmental consequences of the genetic engineering of trees, and how this technology is affecting the forest industry and biodiversity, and how these genetic engineering applications may even be more sweeping than the effects of genetically engineered food crops.
The second section focuses on human health, as well as the myths of cloning and so called xenotransplantation – the use of genetically engineered animal organs for human transplants. Several authors explore the emergence of a new generation of eugenics, and look at the politics of health with a view toward how genetic engineering will affect human health issues.
Shand of the Rural Advancement Foundation
International opens the third section with an overview of the biotech industry
itself. Among other things, she discusses the incredible wave of buy outs of
seed companies in the early ‘90s. Expanding from there, we look at some of the
international issues related to genetic engineering, including biopiracy. Michael Dorsey of the Edmonds
Institute and the Sierra Club writes about biopiracy
research that he has done in
fourth section tells the story of the growing opposition to genetic
engineering. As far as I know, it’s the first thorough treatment of this topic,
bringing together stories from the
Q: Many people know of genetic engineering but don’t know how it’s done. Can you briefly explain this?
A: Genetic engineering involves the artificial transfer of genetic material, or DNA, usually between unrelated species of plants, animals, bacteria, viruses and humans.
The two most common methods for gene transfer are biological and electromechanical. Early experiments all involved changing DNA using bacterial vectors. Many bacteria have part of their genome located on “plasmids,” which are small loops of DNA outside their main chromosomes. These plasmids were first used as means of transferring DNA. Later, to get foreign genes into plant cells, scientists started using bacteria that infect plant cells. In mammalian cells, they often used genetically engineered’d viruses; in some of the most publicized experiments, modified cold viruses are used.
More recently, the move has been away from biological vectors, which place some constraints on gene transfer, and toward the use of a “gene gun” which shoots high speed projectiles of gold or tungsten that are coated with the DNA fragments of choice.
By their very character, these technologies create inherent uncertainties. These uncertainties are at the heart of the wide range of health and environmental problems that have been discovered. When you use these technologies, you have no idea where the foreign DNA is going to land if it’s taken up by the DNA of the recipient cells. You also have no idea how it will interact with regulatory genes, as well as the genes that code for various proteins.
The success rate for all application of genetic engineering is vanishingly small. That’s why they use antibiotic resistance genes as markers to see if the intended transfer occurred. So, along with genes they seek to insert, they’re injecting genes for antibiotic resistance. Those cells that didn’t take up the foreign the DNA won’t survive antibiotic treatment. Additionally, they’re injecting promoter sequences, usually from viruses, that facilitate the disabling of genetic regulation in the host organism and, therefore, facilitate the invasion of the host cells DNA by foreign DNA.
Q: What do you say to people who say these technologies are no different than old fashioned field crossing?
A: I say that the analogy between genetic engineering and field crossing is a false one, and a deliberate misrepresentation of what’s inherently unique about this technology. For example, natural breeding only occurs with a species or across species—in the case of some plants—that have very close evolutionary histories. Genetic engineering completely overrides these natural constraints.
But a more subtle and more significant difference is that in the natural world, genes aren’t randomly inserted into new location in the genome, as they are in genetic engineering. Genetic fragments that share the same location on the chromosomes, but may have very different properties, can be exchanged. Such genetic crosses are governed by complex genetic and biochemical controls. The various molecular checks and balances that exist to facilitate a gene’s proper expression aren’t overridden by traditional breeding. In contrast, they are overridden by genetic engineering.
That’s why you get some of the bizarre effects that have been reported, such as the silencing of genes that have been genetically modified. For example, researchers tried to make petunias twice as colorful by doubling the pigment gene. They ended up producing some plants with no pigment at all. No one knows how it works but it clearly has to do with overriding the processes that regulate gene expression. There are many such examples. There were early attempts to get pigs to express human growth hormone, in the hope of raising pigs with leaner meat. Instead scientists found themselves with experimental pigs whose whole metabolism and organ development was so distorted that they could barely stand up, were cross eyed and couldn’t live normal lives, even though the only change intended was to add the one gene that coded for human growth hormone.
Q: Are the low success rates just a function of lack of experience? Will genetic engineers get better with more practice?
A: Possibly, but it’s important to understand that these failures are a function of the inherent limitations of genetic engineering and a reflection of the fact that in order for complex organisms to grow and function properly, they’ve developed an incredible array of genetic controls. For example, there are specific mechanisms to prevent invasions by foreign DNA. It is as if, on the genetic level, there is a counterpart of the immune system. Instead of acting as an immune system, these systems act to keep DNA intact. Genetic engineering has to override the regulatory processes at the cellular level in order to produce its intended effects.
Q: Should we expect to see this industry fail over time because it is inherently, biologically untenable?
A: Well, it might. They’ve had a very hard time getting genetically modified organisms to successfully express more than one or two traits, even though they’ve been working on it for years. Further, the vast majority of genetically influenced traits are not the product of a single gene.
You learn in introductory biology that DNA is translated into RNA and then into protein. There’s supposed to be a simple linear relationship. But in most complex organisms it often takes many genes acting together to allow a certain quality to be expressed. At the same time, a single gene may affect numerous cellular processes. So, it’s many to one, and one to many. With those kinds of traits we haven’t seen even the beginning of success.
This industry has had billions of dollars of venture capital pumped into it, and the research is very narrowly driven by the imperative of product development. Virtually all the effort is going into identifying qualities that can be turned into commercial products . We’ve had numerous developments that the industry considers successes even though we’ve shown that the negative consequences far outweigh the benefits. While there appear to be inherent limitations, we have to remain vigilant to keep an eye on where the industry is heading, so we can anticipate what the next generation of political and social battles around these products will be. For example, it looks like the next generation of products might be using animals and plants as “bioreactors” to produce pharmaceutical and industrial chemicals. Of course, it remains to be seen if this can be done properly.
Q: In what ways are genetically engineered foods in US markets modified?
A: Basically, genetic engineers have focused on three plant characteristics. First, they attempt to make crops tolerant to herbicides so fields can be sprayed with weed killers and only genetically engineered plants can grow. Of course, it turns out to be much more complicated than that. Farmers often end up having to use more chemicals than before. Second, crops have been engineered to produce a bacterial pesticide toxic to specific types of field pests. The problems associated with this approach would take too long to discuss here but pests can develop resistance to these pesticides. They can harm beneficial insects like ladybugs, honeybees, and of course monarch butterflies. The third area is viral resistance. Of course, a plant that develops viral resistance may lead to a natural backlash through the development of newer viruses that can surmount the genetically engineered resistance.
Research on genetic engineering in every case confirms what opponents have been saying all along about the likely negative ecological consequences. But the problem is that it is taking a long time for research on the negative consequences to catch up with 15 20 years of research that has been rather narrowly focused on the development of products. Corn, soybeans, cotton and canola are the main genetically engineered crops. Over 60% of processed foods have one or more of these products as ingredients. So, to get these products out of our food supply is an ongoing battle.
Q: What health effects are likely to be caused by the use of agricultural and human applications of genetic technologies?
A: This isn't an easy question to answer, not because there aren't many likely effects, but because the research on these effects has not begun to catch up with 20 years of corporate research aimed squarely at developing new products. We do know that the likelihood of unexpected allergic reactions and increased levels of toxins in food is very high. Millions of dollars of genetically engineered corn were recently pulled off the market remember the taco shell controversy? because a particular toxin gene spliced in from bacteria makes a protein that was seen as likely to cause allergies in humans. Even the generally industry friendly scientists at the EPA agreed that there was a problem.
There's also a problem with antibiotic resistance. Since the success rates of experiments in genetic engineering are so minuscule, they have to use a so called "marker gene" to see which cells actually took up the foreign DNA. These markers are usually antibiotic resistance genes so that cells with no foreign DNA are killed by antibiotic treatment. The British Medical Association declared in 1999 that this practice should cease immediately, because antibiotic resistance could be passed on to pathogens in our digestive tract. But it hasn't ceased at all.
important thing that happened in 1999 was that a series of surprising
experiments were released in
Q: What kind of economic and social impacts might we expect from these technologies?
A: I think it's important to point out that the data on environmental impacts are much clearer than for human health effects. We know that genetically engineered crops can be lethal to beneficial organisms in the environment, such as ladybugs and monarch butterflies. We know that other crops and related wild plants can suffer genetic contamination through cross pollination, that we may have 'superbugs' and 'superweeds' due to unpredictable patterns of gene escape. We also know that genetically engineered Bt toxin leaches into soil and is stable for 8 months or more, where it can have serious effects on the microbes that sustain soil fertility, etc. The next generation of genetically engineered crops, many of which are designed as small 'factories' or 'bioreactors' to produce drugs and industrial chemicals, could have even more serious effects.
Biotechnology has been a vehicle for unprecedented concentration of corporate power over our food and our health. For me, that's the most serious social and economic impact. This industry would love for farmers to become as beholden to the large processors and distributors as, say, companies that make auto parts for Ford and GM. The larger company completely controls the supply, the price and the specifications, and the subcontractors simply follow the requirements of their contracts, buy the right chemicals and apply them according to a fixed schedule. That's where many industry analysts say things are heading, and the corporate concentration that both supports and is supported by the development of genetic engineering is what could make this possible.
other parts of the world, people are protesting the loss of their ability to
save seeds due to technologies such as the Terminator seed, which is still in
the biotech pipeline. Gene
"prospectors" from Northern universities and corporations have been
searching the globe for interesting plants and even human genes that they can
patent and use for their own purposes.
The biotech companies profit, and people whose
ancestors first developed a plant variety or processing method may find that
their traditional practices are suddenly appropriated by some foreign patent.
This has happened with neem products and basmati rice
Q: Aren’t vitamin A yellow rice and bananas that are supposed to deliver vaccines examples of positive uses of GE?
whole “golden” rice phenomenon is largely driven by the biotech industry’s
public relations needs. Activists in the South have presented evidence of the
fraudulence of the claim that Genetically engineered
foods will solve problems of hunger. People in the
Regarding the banana vaccine, we have no idea whether this idea will work. If you use food to get a vaccine, how do you control dosage? Further, as a crop, what will happen where there are other varieties of bananas or other species that can cross pollinate and accidentally produce the vaccine protein? Who knows what effect his might have on the metabolism and growth of that plant, or on people who consume these unintended vaccine producing crops?
Q: To what extent have protests against rBGH (genetically engineered Bovine Growth Hormone) or other genetically modified foods been successful?
everything we can tell, rBGH is not being used widely
American farmers who grow crops such as corn and soybeansare beginning to question the use of genetically engineered crops as well. In 2000, for the first time, we’ve seen genetically engineered corn being grown on significantly fewer acres of corn than the year before. That’s the first time the acreage of a genetically engineered version of a crop has decreased from one year to the next. Given the lack of markets, the inability of agribusiness to force Genetic engineering down the throats of Europeans, and the recent recall of taco shells made from corn with a pesticide tolerance gene that was not even approved by EPA for human consumption, farmers will become even more reluctant to grow genetically engineered crops.
Potatoes are another example of the rejection of genetically engineered foods. Potatoes designed to combat pests were one of the first genetically engineered foods, but the damaging effects to beneficial insects are such that the use of Genetically engineered potatoes has dropped off significantly. Major consumers from McDonald’s to a huge Canadian company called McCain’s have told farmers that they just don’t want genetically engineered potatoes.
Q: Why isn’t opposition to genetically engineered foods in US as vigorous as in other countries?
is a very complex question. Many glib answers have been offered, such as that
we simply haven’t had a major outbreak of mad cow disease in the
First, the industry has succeeded in keeping this issue out of the media here. In the summer of 1999, only one third of the people surveyed in US supermarkets knew that there were Genetically engineered products currently in our food supply. People just don’t know what’s going on. It has to do with corporate control of the media. Food and science writers have been intensely lobbied to keep genetic engrineering out of the public eye.
are also significant differences in attitudes about food in general here in the